No, they do not.
Spanish sworn translations do not expire after a certain amount of time.
That said, as a stamped and dated copy of the original document must be attached to its Spanish sworn translation (an official requirement), the translation may not be accepted, if the original document has expired.
One of the requirements for getting married in Spain is submitting a Certificate of No Impediment. Spanish authorities ask for the certificate to have been issued within the last three months. If you get the certificate, let’s say, six months before the date and request a Spanish sworn translation, you will end up with a valid translation of a document which will be rejected. As a copy of the document is attached to its translation and they are both dated, the translation will be rejected, too. As a result, you will need to request a new certificate and a new translation.
Therefore, the key for a smooth process is to make sure you know your documents’ expiry date before requesting a sworn translation.
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IRENE CORCHADO RESMELLA is a Spanish translator based in Edinburgh. A Chartered Linguist and member of the CIOL, she is also an English-Spanish sworn translator appointed by the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Irene specialises in sworn and legal translation (particularly in wills and succession) and is an Affiliate member of STEP. ICR Translations is registered with the Information Commissioner's Office and has professional indemnity insurance.