No, they cannot. At least not on the basis of being a Spanish sworn translator.
Sworn translation is a regulated profession in Spain. It is regulated by language pair: e.g. English-Spanish, English-Catalan, etc. That means that a sworn translator must obtain a separate official appointment for each of their working language pairs.
Spanish sworn translators (traductores jurados) receive their appointment by the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, while Catalan sworn translators (traductors jurats) receive their appointment by the Generalitat de Catalunya.
Therefore, Spanish sworn translators will not be able to translate to and from Catalan, unless they obtain an official appointment as Catalan sworn translators, even if they speak the language. Their appointment as Spanish sworn translators only allows them to undertake Spanish sworn translation.
Now, in one specific case, they could undertake projects involving Catalan language: when the original document comes in a bilingual format.
Certain documents such as degree certificates, transcripts and other education-related documents may be issued in a bilingual Catalan + Spanish format. This allows a Spanish sworn translator to translate the Spanish version. The same goes for bilingual documents issued in Spanish + any of the other official languages in Spain (Basque and Galician).
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IRENE CORCHADO RESMELLA is a Spanish translator based in Edinburgh. A Chartered Linguist and member of the CIOL, she is also an English-Spanish sworn translator appointed by the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Irene specialises in sworn and legal translation (particularly in wills and succession) and is an Affiliate member of STEP. ICR Translations is registered with the Information Commissioner's Office and has professional indemnity insurance.